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estonia: Surface of Mars, photographed by Mars Express, 7th November 2009.

38°N 136°E to 24°N 139°E; about 840 km, from the southern Utopia Planitia, to the northwest flank of the massive extinct volcano Elysium Mons, where it is cut by the Granicus Valles and Elysium Fossae.

Though not the most famous of Mars’ montes, Elysium is almost 14 km high and 240 km wide, dwarfing any terrestrial mountain or volcano. Roughly circular, the entire volcanic uplift covers more than 45,000 square km, almost exactly the same area as Estonia.

Composite of 3 visible light images for colour, and 1 monochrome for detail. Colours are not balanced naturalistically.

Image credit: ESA. Composite: AgeOfDestruction.


I’ve been watching Cosmos with Neil Tyson (which is great, btw), but of course, there is no mention of Arab and African astronomers, some of whose work influenced well known European astronomers. Does anyone have any solid info on African and Arab contributions to astronomy? Thanks for the help!


Did you get through the whole series? Because they totally do talk about Arabic astronomers and scientists

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